Analysis, characterization and optimization of the energy efficiency on softwarized mobile platforms
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The upcoming 5th Generation of mobile systems (5G) is about to revolutionize the industry, bringing a new architecture oriented to new vertical markets and services. Due to this, the 5G-PPP has specified a list of Key Performance Indicator (KPI) that 5G systems need to support e.g. increasing the 1000 times higher data volume, 10 to 100 times more connected devices or 10 times lower power consumption. In order to achieve these requirements, it is expected to expand the current deployments using more Points of Attachment (PoA) by increasing their density and by using multiple wireless technologies. This massive deployment strategy triggers a side effect in the energy efficiency though, generating a conflict with the “10 times lower power consumption” KPI. In this context, the research community has proposed novel paradigms to achieve the imposed requirements for 5G systems, being materialized in technologies such as Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV). These new paradigms are the first step to softwarize the mobile network deployments, enabling new degrees of flexibility and reconfigurability of the Radio Access Network (RAN). In this thesis, we first present a detailed analysis and characterization of softwarized mobile networking. We consider software as a basis for the next generation of cellular networks and hence, we analyze and characterize the impact on the energy efficiency of these systems. The first goal of this work is to characterize the available software platforms for Software Defined Radio (SDR), focusing on the two main open source solutions: OAI and srsLTE. As result, we provide a methodology to analyze and characterize the performance of these solutions in terms of CPU usage, network performance, compatibility and extensibility of the software. Once we have understood the expected performance for such platformsc, we study an SDR prototype built with hardware acceleration, that employs a FPGA based platform. This prototype is designed to include energy-awareness capabilites, allowing the system to be reconfigured to minimize the energy footprint when possible. In order to validate our system design, we later present an energy characterization platform that we will employ to experimentally measure the energy consumption of real devices. In our approach, we perform two kind of analysis: at short time scale and large time scale. Thus, to validate our approach in short time scale and the energy framework, we have characterized though numerical analysis the Rate Adaptation (RA) algorithms in IEEE 802.11, and then compare our theoretical results to the obtained ones through experimentation. Next we extend our analysis to the hardware accelerated SDR prototype previously mentioned. Our experimental results show that our system can indeed reduce the energy footprint reconfiguring the system deployment. Then, the time scale of our analysis is elevated and we present Resource-on-Demand (RoD) schemes for ultradense network deployments. This strategy is based on dynamically switch on/off the elements that form the network to reduce the overall energy consumption. Hence, we present a analytic model in two flavors, an exact model that accurately predicts the system behaviour but high computational cost and a simplified one that is lighter in complexity while keeping the accuracy. Our results show that these schemes can effectively enhance the energy efficiency of the deployments and mantaining the Quality of Service (QoS). In order to prove the feasibility of RoD, we present a softwarized platform that follows the SDN paradigm, the OFTEN (Open Flow framework for Traffic Engineering in mobile Networks with energy awareness) framework. Our design is based on OpenFlow with energy-awareness functionalities. Finally, a real prototype of this framework is presented, proving the feasibility of the RoD in real deployments.