DRONEE: Dual-radio opportunistic networking for energy efficiency
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Reducing the power consumption of smartphones is becoming more and more important as smartphones become an indispensable component of our daily activities. In this work, we propose a novel scheme, so called DRONEE, that dramatically ameliorates energy efficiency for uplink transmissions, while achieving near-optimal throughput and high fairness levels in cellular networks. Our proposal consists in a novel two-tier uplink forwarding scheme in which users cooperate by forming clusters of dual-radio mobiles for hybrid wireless networks. The impact of our proposal is threefold: (i)(i) energy efficiency is boosted by allowing mobiles to relay the cellular traffic through intra-cluster ad hoc communications, which leads to reduction of power-hungry cellular transmissions; (ii)(ii) cellular capacity is augmented by scheduling uplink transmissions from mobiles with the best channel; (iii)(iii) almost perfect fairness is achieved by allowing users to share the cellular resources within their cluster. We corroborate the practical relevance of our proposal by providing a first-order discussion on the implementability of DRONEE using LTE and WiFi Direct.