Achieving Per-Flow Satisfaction with Multi-Path D2D
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Device-to-Device (D2D) communication allows for users placed in a cell to establish direct connections with each other using several connection modes. In this paper, we propose Multi-Path D2D (MPD2D), a mathematical optimization framework that accounts for the availability of D2D modes under the requirements dictated by a process of flow requests. MPD2D selects the combination of cellular and D2D links that boosts network performance as much as possible. We consider Underlay and Overlay as Inband D2D modes reusing cellular frequencies with scheduled resources and the Outband D2D mode exploiting WLAN frequencies and the 802.11 random access scheme to complement cellular resources. We model throughput, energy consumption, interference, and per-flow network requirements, so to define a network utility function that accounts for throughput and power efficiency. Moreover, we formulate a user satisfaction metric that accounts for the history of users within the cell. Integrating such a metric in a throughput optimization problem is lightweight yet very effective to drive towards almost complete fairness. Our optimization scheme is formulated as a Binary Non-Linear Program, which results in higher throughput performance in comparison to other state-of-the-art solutions we have tested. Finally, we propose two effective heuristics, whose performance is near-optimal, whereas their complexity scales polynomially with the number of users.