Deep Learning-based Multivariate Time Series Classification for Indoor/Outdoor Detection
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Recently, the topic of indoor outdoor detection (IOD) has seen its popularity increase, as IOD models can be leveraged to augment the performance of numerous Internet of Things and other applications. IOD aims at distinguishing in an efficient manner whether a user resides in an indoor or an outdoor environment, by inspecting the cellular phone sensor recordings. Legacy IOD models attempt to determine a user’s environment by comparing the sensor measurements to some threshold values. However, as we also observe in our experiments, such models exhibit limited scalability, and their accuracy can be poor. Machine learning (ML)-based IOD models aim at removing this limitation, by utilizing a large volume of measurements to train ML algorithms to classify a user’s environment. Yet, in most of the existing research, the temporal dimension of the problem is disregarded. In this paper, we propose treating IOD as a multivariate time series classification (TSC) problem, and we explore the performance of various deep learning (DL) models. We demonstrate that a multivariate TSC approach can be used to monitor a user’s environment, and predict changes in its state, with greater accuracy compared to conventional approaches that ignore the feature variation over time. Additionally, we introduce a new DL model for multivariate TSC, exploiting the concept of self-attention and atrous spatial pyramid pooling. The proposed DL multivariate TSC framework exploits only low power consumption sensors to infer a user’s environment, and it outperforms state-of-the-art models, yielding a higher accuracy combined with a smaller computational cost.